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Rutherford High School RWC

Glossary of Rhetorical Devices
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READING AND WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE

List of Rhetorical Devices

 

Accent-

 

Accumulation-

 

Adnominatio-

 

Alliteration—repetition of same initial consonant sound in two or more words appearing closely together; similar to a consonant tongue twister; not to be confused with words starting with the same letter but must be identical sound; ex. George Jetson, Sweet smell of success, dime a dozen, jump for joy; Alliteration in pop culture: Dunkin Donuts, Krispy Kreme, Bugs Bunny, Donald Duck, Daffy Duck, Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Fred Flintstone, Pink Panther, Marvin the Martian, Chicago Cubs, Seattle Sonics, Los Angeles Lakers, M&Ms, Barry Bonds, Jacksonville Jaguars, Chucky Cheese, Frosted Flake, Captain Crunch, Count Chocula, Backstreet Boys, Dippin Dots, Sesame Street, Wonder Woman, candy cane, Stanley Steamer, Ping pong, Jumping Jacks, Tic-Tac-Toe, Porky Pig, Spongebob Squarepants;

 

Amplification-

 

Anacoenosis

 

Anacoluthon-

 

Anadiplosis-

 

Anagram-word that can be rearranged to form another word; ex. “god” and “dog,” “”lemon” and “melon.”

 

Anaphora-

 

Anastrophe-

 

Antanaclasis-

 

Anthimeria-

 

Anthropomorphic- (anthropomorphism)

 

Anticlimax-

 

Antimetabole-

 

Antiphrasis-

 

Antistrophe-

 

Antithesis-

 

Antonomasia-

 

Aphoria-

 

Aphorismus-

 

Aposiopesis-

 

Apostrophe-

 

Apposition-

 

Appositive-

 

Archaism-

 

Arrhythmia-

 

Assonance-an internal vowel rhyme; ex “the rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain.”

 

Asteismus-

 

Asyndeton (polysyndeton)-

 

Auxesis-

 

Cacophony-

 

Canzone-

 

Catachresis-

 

Chiasmus-

 

Circumlocution-

 

Cliché—Overused or trite word

 

Coalescence-

 

Cohesion-

 

Collage-

 

Conceit-

 

Connotation-an implied meaning, value, or feeling attributed to a word; a secondary meaning for a word other than the direct definition; For example, “pansy” is defined as a purple flower, but it has negative connotations often used when referring to a scrawny male.  See also denotation, idiom, and cliché.

 

Consonance-

 

Correctio-

 

Deduction-

 

Denominatio-

 

Denotation-the dictionary meaning of a word. see connotation.

 

Diachronicity-

 

Diction—Word choice

 

Digression-

 

Dystmesis-

 

Ellipse-

 

Ellipsis-

 

Enallage-

 

Enjambment-

 

Enthymeme-

 

Envoi-

 

Epanalepsis-

 

Epanorthosis-

 

Epistrophe-

 

Erotema-

 

Euphony-

 

Euphuism-

 

Figurative Language-language using a figure of speech;

 

Figure-

 

Figure of Speech-a word or expression not intended to be understood literally; a fancy way of writing helping readers visualize what is said; ex. “get your goat” means to get the best of someone; see also personification, idiom, and metaphor.

 

Fissures-

 

Grammar B-

 

Hendiadys-

 

Hendiatris-

 

Hypallage-

 

Hyperbaton-

 

Hyperbole-a figure of speech that over-exaggerates in order to draw attention to itself; it uses a similar technique as a metaphor in that it compares two things, however, the first thing is being compared to an exaggerated second thing. Hyperbole is often used in stand-up comedy and jokes. Ex. “I could sleep for a year.” “I am so hungry I could eat a horse.” “Yo mamma is so ugly she scared away the rats.”

 

Hypophora-

 

Hypotaxis (parataxis)-

 

Hysteron proteron-

 

Idiom-an expression not meant to be understood literally; second-language speakers struggle with these because idioms are only used in their native language; ex. Over the hill, hold your horses, put a sock in it, hard headed.

 

Innuendo-

 

Intensification-

 

Invocation-

 

Isocolon-

 

Jongleur-

 

Juxtaposition-

 

Kenning-

 

Labyrinthine-

 

Linearity-

 

Litote-

 

Malapropism-

 

Meiosis-

 

Merism-

 

Metaphor-a figure of speech that makes a comparison, or analogy, between two things not meant to be understood literally; instead of comparing two things using the words “like” or “as” a metaphor crafts an exaggerated and unrealistic image in the reader’s mind of something being something else.  Common metaphors may be considered cliché or idioms. ex.  Her hair was mess of orange broom bristles. His fingers were long, spindly branches.

 

Metaphor (Absolute metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Abstract metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Active metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Animal metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Complex metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Compound metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Dead metaphor)-a metaphor no longer understood though it is still used; ex. “Mind your Ps and Qs” doesn’t make sense anymore but it originated in the English pubs where beer was served in pints and quarts, so “minding your Ps and Qs” was “being careful”.

 

Metaphor (Double Metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Extended metaphor)- a metaphor that lasts more than a sentence; it may last an entire poem or an entire novel.

 

Metaphor (Frozen metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Humanistic metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Implicit metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Inanimate metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Incarnation metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Juxtaposed metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Mixed metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Multiple Metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Negative metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Paralogical, or Antimetaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Past Tense Metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Root metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Sense metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Simple, or Tight)-

 

Metaphor (Submerged metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Tentative Metaphor)-

 

Metaphor (Triple Metaphor)-

 

Metonymy-

 

Neologism-

 

Onomatopoeia- a word that, when spoken, imitates a sound; ex. Buzz, pop, cluck, crack, beep, swish, meow.

 

Overstatement-

 

Oxymoron-

 

Palindrome-a word that reads the same either forwards or backwards; ex. Anna, level, civic.

 

Parable-

 

Paradox-

 

Paralipsis-

 

Parallelism-

 

Paraprosdokian-

 

Parenthesis-

 

Paroemion-

 

Paronomasia-

 

Parrhesia-

 

Parts of speech-

 

Pathetic Fallacy-

 

Periphrasis-

 

Perissologia-

 

Personification-

 

Personification (animism)- 

 

Personification (anthropomorphism)-

 

Personification (teleology)-

 

Pleonasm-

 

Polyptoton-

 

Polysyndeton-

 

Praeteritio-

 

Procatalepsis-

 

Prolepsis-

 

Pun-a play on words; occurs when what is said has double-meaning in a comedic way;  a device used often by comedians and joke tellers; puns are often created using words with double meanings, words that sound alike but have different definitions, or idioms;   ex. Q:  How did they get the bull to stop charging? A: They took away his credit card. OR Old doctors never die; they just lose their patients.

 

Redundancy-

 

Refrain-

 

Repetition-

 

Rhetoric-

 

Rhetorical Question-a question not meant to be answered; rather, the question is posed so an audience feels the speaker has anticipated their question; it is also used in persuasive speeches to punctuate a significant fact; ex. Were you raised in a barn? Do you hear me talking to you? Are you dumb? Are you kidding me?

 

Rhetorical Situation-

 

Scansion-

 

Sibilance-

 

Simile-

 

Simile (Extended Simile)-

 

Staccato-

 

Strophe-

 

Syllabics-

 

Syllepsis-

 

Syllogism-

 

Symbol –

 

Symbolism-

 

Synchronicity-

 

Synchysis-

 

Syncopation-

 

Synecdoche-

 

Synesis-

 

Synesthesia-

 

Synizesis-

 

Synonymia-

 

Tautology-

 

Tmesis-

 

Transferred epithet-

 

Tricolon crescens-

 

Tricolon diminuens-

 

Truism-

 

Understatement-

 

Zeugma-

 

Zoomorphism-

 

 

 

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